Shawn Callahan’s post about a storytelling technique called PREP has prompted me to write about a technique I learned some time ago.

My preferred story structure for presentation, e-mail or blogging was previously S-C-Q-A: Situation, Complication, Question and Answer – also known as The Minto Pyramid Principle. S-C-Q-A helps you write introductions which engage an audience’s attention before you provide the answers.

Situation – where are we now?
“For a long time we have been…”
Start by telling your audience something they already know. This helps establishes relevance. As soon as they are asking themselves “I know this – why are you telling me?” you have them hooked. You now have an opening for the Complication.

Typical situations are “we have a task to perform”, “we have a problem” and “we took an action”.

“Recently the situation has changed…”
What happened next? The Complication creates tension in the story you’re telling. This triggers the Question you will ask.

Typical complications: “something is stopping us performing the task”, “we know the solution to the problem”, “a solution to the problem has been suggested” and “the action we took didn’t work”.

“So what should we do?”
The Question arises logically from the Complication and leads into the Answer.

Typical questions: “what should we do?”, “how do we implement the solution?”, “is it the right solution?” and “why didn’t the action work?”

“We need to…”
The Answer to the Question is the substance of your main point. Summarise it first – completing your introduction – then break it down into details and write the main body of your presentations.

Find it on

More on S-C-Q-A
The method is explained in greater detail in Barbara Minto’s excellent book “The Minto Pyramid Principle“.

At first glance the book may appear academic, but start reading and it draws you in. Barbara explains essential ideas about logic and communication and crimes I wasn’t even aware I was committing. I particularly enjoyed the section on how to avoid making “intellectually blank” statements when summarising grouped ideas.

Admittedly reading the book was more effort than reading Shawn’s blog, but it has had a big impact on the way I work.


I’ve added a mindmap of The Minto Pyramid Principle.


Jason · September 5, 2007 at 6:47 pm

Hey Richard,

When I first started working for Accenture, I managed to have lunch with one of the most successful partners in the energy practice.

Over dinner I asked him all sorts of questions, one of which was “what book would you recommend I read to move me ahead of my peers?”

The partner looked thoughtful for a moment, and then said “The Pyramid Principle” by Barabara Minto.

I got it, read it, and did indeed move ahead ;o)

Definitely recommended!


Anonymous · January 14, 2008 at 5:30 pm

Just thought I’d mention that the link in the post seems to be outdated. The new address to Barbara Minto’s Pyramid Principle website is:

Mike Glodo · February 13, 2010 at 9:04 pm

When I was at Bellcore in 1995. There were only five of us and Barbara Minto.

Amazingly effective framework. Highly recommended book, superb seminar.

Good post!

Karen Zanetti · February 6, 2012 at 6:31 pm

Thanks so much for sharing your mind map. Can you email me your latest iteration?

I am trying to find the book locally.


ConradG · April 5, 2013 at 10:30 am

Hi Richard
I have just realised how old this blog was. Nonethless, Minto and SCQA are the foundations that drive consulting at PA Consulting Group where I started my career; I have found this to be the single most useful thing I have learned in my 15 years in management advisory.
With a little practice, even the most daunting and complex challenge is demolished in a neat, clear way.
Thanks for the blog.

Bookmap: The Minto Pyramid Principle… visually | Is This Wisdom? · June 28, 2011 at 11:23 am

[…] Anyway, I thought I should share some of the others I’ve made, so here’s my mindmap of Barbara Minto’s “The Pyramid Principle”, which I wrote about previously. […]

Development and Engineering | insideops · July 31, 2014 at 5:36 pm

[…] way things work now.  The results of this search is often captured in a document format based on SCQA that we call the SCPA.  Our difference is that we fell the question is often self evident and […]

Terminator and The Recruiter | Vincent Rousselet · September 6, 2014 at 3:25 pm

[…] as taught by PA Consulting to all its consultants (see here for a bit more on the principles of the Minto Pyramid […]

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